When food is unable to stay within the human food chain and be redirected to feed people, the optimal solution will depend on a case-by-case evaluation. A first consideration should be whether it could be redirected to feed livestock subject to safety, quality and legislative requirements being met. Otherwise, consideration should be given to using it as a raw material for other industries (e.g. detergents, inks, cosmetics, plastics and pharmaceuticals) or recovery (e.g. transformed into fertilizer or compost or used for renewable energy production). Only as a last resort should it be incinerated without energy recovery or sent to landfill.